BASOPHILIA bloodBasophilia is the situation where we find the high count of basophils in the blood in our body. Increase in basophils causes variety of issues. Basophils are one kind of white blood cells. Basophils count is abnormal when it crosses the count of 10^10 basophils in one liter of blood.

Basophilia never appears independently, independent occurrence cases are very rare which signifies myelogenous leukemia. Rise in the basophils count is related with numerous medical circumstances.

Presence of abnormally very large quantity of basophils in the blood stream circulation is referred as basophilia. Basophils are also called as basophil granulocytes. Basophils are nothing but granule like substances which consists of white blood cells which are formed in the bone marrow of the body. Bone marrow is the origin for platelets, red blood cells, and all types of white blood cells.

Basophil granulocytes or basophils are very least usual kind of WBC as they are less in number. Out of whole white blood cell count only 0.01% – 0.3% are basophils. Even though they are least in count but play a vital role in protecting the body from parasites and bacteria. Excess presence of basophils is also not healthy and this cannot be neglected. Presence of heparin and anticoagulant in basophils shows that clotting of blood does not take place quickly.

Basophils always come along with the following:
• Myelopproliferative neoplasms(MPN):-
In basophilia we find the extra quantity of basophils production. We know that basophils are originated from the bone marrow, such condition usually related with usual medical conditions with the myeloproliferative neoplasms, the bunch of disorders in which bone marrow develops large amount of blood cells such as WBC, RBC, platelets. Individuals who suffer from the bone marrow related problems often signify the presence of basophilia, which interferes in the formation of blood cell. In variety of bone marrow diseases, the particularly discovered one in chronic myelogenous leukemia is basophilia.

Cancer in the bone marrow which leads to the enormous production of particular kind of WBC is called as granulocytes. There are 3 types of granulocytes namely basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils. The basophil count in the blood rises considerably and leads for the whopping 20% of the whole WBC present in the blood. Irregular count of basophils is linked with polycythemia vera, basophilic leukemia, a MPN type.

• Carcinoma:-
The cancer of epithelial tissue is the carcinoma. This tissue forms a lining for the internal organs, blood vessels, external surfaces. This disease attacks the epithelial cells also causes the basophilia.

• Lymphoma:-
Hodgkins lymphoma is related with excess blood basophil amount. Hodgkins lymphoma is a one type of cancer which drastically elevates the lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are kind of WBC. The hodgkins lymphoma affects the lymph tissues and enlarges the lymphoid tissue. Lymph nodes consists of lymphocytes reside in the lymph node. Increase in lymphocyte production shows the rise in WBC including the basophils.

• Allergy:-
Allergic reaction caused by some of the drugs, environmental factors, foods also can cause high basophils count. Whenever body comes in contact with the allergens, activation of basophils takes place which in turn produces histamines which are causative agents for many symptoms like watery eyes, runny nose. In allergic reaction duration basophils count is usually stays high.

• Inflammatory circumstances:-
One of the causes for elevated basophils is the chronic inflammations. Basophils plays a vital role in causing inflammations by producing chemicals such as serotonin, histamine, which causes blood vessels dilation, asthma, breathing problems. Usually amount of basophils are elevated in conditions like asthma, inflammatory disease like crohn’s disorder, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic eczema.

• Infections:
Bacterial infections, viral infections make the body to elevate the white blood cell count to fight against the infections. White blood cells fight with the pathogens and restrict the spreading of infections. It is the way our body defends on its own against the diseases. The usual infections where we can find the high granulocytes, especially basophils are influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, tuberculosis.

• Shortage of iron:-
Deficiency of iron causes the disease called anemia, which can also elevate the basophils count. In anemia we find the sharp reduction in healthy RBC. Our body based on dietary iron to release the iron rich protein called as hemoglobin present in RBC. Hemoglobin facilitates the oxygen to all parts of the body. The insufficient dietary iron results in less hemoglobin, which in turn reduces the count of healthy red blood cells. Patients with iron deficiency anemia always shows excessive count of basophils in the blood stream, Premature destruction of RBC in the hemolytic anemia also increases basophils count in the body.

Symptom varies according to the cause of basophilia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms enlarge the spleen by causing fullness sensation and discomfort in the abdominal region. Anemia causes persistent fatigue, weakness, head ache. Hyperthyroidism results in ache in muscles, constipation, stiffed joints, sudden weight gain. Basophilia in allergies or the thyroid problems need not to worry much; by proper medication tissue can be resolved. But the condition from cancer of bone marrow is dangerous cause, which needs proper treatment.

Anton Lawrence
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